Friesland(2014)17 Available Subtitles !!TOP!!
Television in the Netherlands was officially introduced in 1951. In the Netherlands, the television market is divided between a number of commercial networks, such as RTL Nederland, and a system of public broadcasters sharing three channels, NPO 1, NPO 2, and NPO 3. Imported programmes (except those for children), as well as news interviews with responses in a foreign language, are almost always shown in their original language, with subtitles.
Friesland(2014)17 Available subtitles
In the Netherlands, television can be watched analog or digital (the latter with the option of HDTV or UHD). Over 2018, 89.2% of Dutch viewers received television digitally. Analogue television is only available via some cable operators and some fiber to the home providers, since the Dutch government ended analogue reception via airwaves in 2006. Dutch largest cable company Ziggo began to phase out the analogue signal in 2018. Watching digital television is possible through a variety of ways, the most common being:
In the Netherlands customers can receive high-definition television channels by cable or satellite. Until 2018 there was no terrestrial HD service available. KPN started to switch its digital terrestrial television platform to the DVB-T2 HEVC standard in October 2018, this transition completed on 9 July 2019.
Since the 2006 trials, none of the main Dutch networks made the move to HD. This changed in the summer of 2008 when from 1 June 2008 until 24 August 2008, the Netherlands Public Broadcasting (NPO) organisations made their primary channel, Nederland 1 temporary available in HD. This made it possible to broadcast Euro 2008, the 2008 Tour de France, and the 2008 Summer Olympics in HD and additionally allowed them to test their systems before the scheduled launch of their permanent HD service in early 2009. The NPO planned to launch their permanent HD service with HD versions of their three channels Nederland 1, Nederland 2, and Nederland 3. Most of the programming in the early stages consisted of upscaled material from their SD channels as in time more programs became available in HD. Technicolor Netherlands [nl], the company responsible for the technical realisation of the broadcasts of the NPOs television and radio channels, began the summer 2008 test broadcast of Nederland 1 HD in 720p/50 as the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) recommends. During the test period an additional 1080i/25 version of the channel was made available to the cable companies because of quality complaints from viewers. In 2009 the NPO decided to adopt the 1080i/25 HD standard.
The first television channels in 4K UHD were officially launched in the Netherlands in 2017. In April 2017, satellite provider CanalDigitaal added Insight TV 4K UHD in its channel line-up. After more than a year of testing, KPN launched ultra-high-definition television on 1 July 2017, with Xite 4K and Hispasat 4K TV. Eurosport 4K launched in the Netherlands on 5 June 2018. NPO 1 launched its first trials with ultra-high-definition television through KPN, CanalDigitaal and some minor networks on 14 June 2018, using the HLG standard. Ziggo Sport is available in UHD from March 2021.
The third bilingual group consists of Polish-Dutch immigrant children. Since 2004, when Poland entered the European Union, there has been an increase of Polish labor immigrants in the Netherlands. Recent demographic statistics indicate that there are 137,794 Polish immigrants in the Netherlands. The majority is first generation immigrant (78%) (Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek [CBS], 2015). In general, Polish immigrants in the Netherlands have a higher educational level than the four largest immigrant groups (that is, migrants from Morocco, Netherlands Antilles and Aruba, Suriname, Turkey), and particularly Polish women are relatively well-educated (Dagevos, 2011). In our sample, the educational level of the Polish group was even higher than expected, which allowed us to match the four groups on SES. Because the influx of immigrants from Poland is relatively recent, limited information is available on language abilities and use in this group. The study by Dagevos (2011) reports that most Polish immigrants have a low level of Dutch and a good command of Polish. Both the low level of Dutch and high level of Polish are most probably related to recency of migration and are expected to change as a function of length of stay in the Netherlands. A minority of the Polish immigrants reports to always speak Dutch with their partner (20%) or children (10%). The reason why more Dutch is used with partners than children is twofold: relatively many Polish immigrants are in mixed marriages and many do not yet have children who are born in the Netherlands. It may be expected that use of Dutch in the Polish migrant families will increase when more children are born and educated in the Netherlands.
Rouder and King (2003) ascribe the negative flanker effects to contrast enhancement in lower order perceptual processes early in stimulus processing. Positive flanker effects, in contrast, may reveal response competition in the response selection processes, which takes place later in stimulus processing. Possibly, bilingual children filter out less and attend to more information in their environment, because they are used to attending to many cues for deciding which language to use in their everyday life. The simultaneous processing of contrasting stimuli may, moreover, be common for bilingual children. This happens, for instance, when they interact in one of their languages while a movie is playing in the other language or when they listen to one language while reading the other language as can happen in the case of subtitles. More experience with the simultaneous processing of contrasting information might reduce the effect of contrast enhancement. 041b061a72